BIOL2300
Biostatistics
Mo We Fr 9:009:50 in Higgins Hall 310
Instructor: Prof. Peter Clote, Higgins 577,
clote@bc.edu, Extension: x21332,
Office hours: Times to be announced, Higgins 577.
Course description

Text

Grading policy

Academic Integrity Policy

Syllabus

Homework

Class Notes

Demos

Tests
This course will introduce biology students to the basic statistical
techniques that are used in conducting biological and medical research.
The course is divided into four parts: (1) descriptive statistics
(mean, variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation);
(2) probability and probability distributions (basic probability theory
and the Bernouilli, Binomial, Hypergeometric, Poisson, Geometric, and Normal
distributions);
(3) statistical inference (parametric tests such as the Ttest and
χ^{2} test for goodness of fit, as well as nonparametric tests
such as the Wilcoxson rank sum test); and,
(4) relationships between variables (correlation as well as
simple and multiple regression). EXCEL and Mathematica will be used in class,
while calculators with statistical functions will be used during
exams.

Biostatistics for the Biological and Health Sciences, 2nd Edition,
by Marc M. Triola, Mario F. Triola, Jason Roy, published by Pearson,
ISBN 9780134039015 (hardcover), ISBN 9780134039017 (softcover),
with Ebook version costing $83.99. The second edition is somewhat
different from the first version  in particular, exercise numbering is
different and there is an extra chapter in the second edition. Two copies
of the textbook have been placed in the Reserves Section of O'Neill Library.
The textbook is available at the BC Bookstore; see the following
link to Pearson Company.
WARNING: For statistics software, we
will use primarily EXCEL , and to a lesser
extent Mathematica. Boston College has a site license
for Microsoft
Office as well as for
Mathematica. For Macintosh users, Excel 2016 requires Mac OS X 10.10 or
higher. If your Macintosh operating system is Mac OS X 10.9 or lower, then
you can either use Excel 2011, or
upgrade the Macintosh operating system to OS X 10.10 or higher, and then
install Excel 2016. You may download Excel 2011 and Excel 2016 at the following
link for
the Boston College community.
One advantage of Excel 2016
is that it contains the statistics ADDIN called "Analysis TookPak",
which simplifies the computation of simple descriptive statistics (histograms,
etc.). With slight complications, these can be computed in Excel 2011
without the Analysis Toolpak addin.
Statistics invariably requires a
tool for number crunching. For all tests, you will need a
scientific calculator
with statistical functions (average, standard deviation, permutations,
combinations, Ttest, correlation, regression, etc.). Due to the diversity
of types of
calculator and to the fact that we will learn Excel functions in class,
you will individually be responsible for learning how to use your
scientific calculator. For the homework, and for inclass demos,
we will use statistical functions in
Excel.
One advantage of using Excel
is that you are likely to have access to Excel in the workplace, regardless
of where you work, and your coworkers will be familiar with Excel.
Additionally, we may use
Mathematica
which produces beautiful graphics
and includes a host of builtin functions; moreover, BC has a site license,
so you can download Mathematica
here.
Class attendance is mandatory.
Homework will be assigned on a weekly basis; no late homework will be
accepted.
Oddnumbered exercises have answers at the back of the book.
Possibly unannounced quizzes will be given  if you are absent when
a quiz is given, then the grade will be 0 (unless you can provide a letter
from the dean or a doctor). Dates for the two midterm examinations are
given.
Again, any absence from a quiz or test earns a grade of 0, which can
not be made up without a letter from the dean.
The breakdown of points is given as follows (please note, that percentages
may be changed during course of semester, in which case you will receive
ample notification)..
Homework, class participation 
10% 
Unannounced quizzes 
10% 
Midterms 1 and 2 
50% 
Final Exam 
30% 
Policy concerning telephones, calculators, etc.
All telephones must be turned off and be kept in your bag or backpack
during class. Unless otherwise instructed, no calculators or computers
may be used during examinations.
Any work handed in with your name on it is presumed to be your own work.
This applies to ALL coursework, including homework assignments,
final projects, and tests.
Any deviation from this policy, can
immediately result in a course grade of "F" and be turned over
to the Board of Academic Integrity for a hearing.
Please refer to
BC Acdademic Integrity Policy for more details concerning the university
academic integrity policy.
The following syllabus is approximate and subject to change.
Inclass tests will be announced.
 Aug 27, 29, 31: Chapters 1,2,3: course introduction,
basic notions,
sampling, frequency, relative frequency, cumulative frequency,
constructing a histogram, constructing a relative frequency histogram.
 Sep 3, 5, 7: Chapter 4, elementary probability, Venn diagrams
and counting, Bayes theorem, mortality rate, absolute and relative risk.
Sep 3 is Labor Day, a holiday.
 Sep 10, 12, 14:
Chapter 5, discrete probability distribution, random variable,
Bernouilli trial, binomial distribution, expectation is additive,
variance is additive provided independence holds.
 Sep 17, 19, 21:
Chapter 5 (continuation), additional discrete probability distributions,
hypergeometric distribution,
Poisson distribution, geometric distribution, multinomial distribution
 Sep 24, 26, 28:
Chapter 6, continuous probability distribution, uniform distribution,
normal distribution.
 Oct 1, 3, 5:
Continuation of Chapter 6, continuity correction, approximating the binomial
distribution by the normal distribution, central limit theorem,
exponential distribution, Boltzmann distribution.
 Oct 8, 10, 12:
Concluding remarks on Chapter 6, review for Midterm 1.
WARNING: MIDTERM 1 on Oct 12, covering
chapters 16 inclusively.
 Oct 15, 17, 19:
Conclusion of material on Chapter 6 that was not covered on
Midterm 1. Chapter 7, point estimates for proportion.
 Oct 22, 24, 26:
Chapter 7, point estimates for proportion and mean (both when the
population standard deviation is known, and when it is unknown),
Tdistribution, sample size for estimation of proportion and mean.
Go over answers to Midterm 1.
 Oct 29, 31, Nov 2:
Chapter 7, point estimates variance and standard deviation, chisquare
distribution, sample size for variance estimation.
Chapter 8, hypothesis testing with one sample, Zscore, Ttest, type I and
II error (false positives, false negatives)
 Nov 5, 7, 9:
Chapter 9, hypothesis testing with two samples, Ttest.
 Nov 12, 14, 16:
Chapter 10, correlation and regression.
 Nov 19, 21, 23:
Chapter 11, multinomial experiments.
Thanksgiving break from Wed Nov 21 through
Sunday Nov 24.
 Nov 26, 28, 30:
Chapter 11, multinomial experiment, goodnessoffit, contingency tables.
Midterm Exam on Nov 28
covering chapters 710 inclusively. Unexcused absence from Midterm Exam
earns a ZERO, and no makeup will be allowed  the only exceptions
are major issues that arise (deaths in the family, hospitalization, etc.)
for which a letter from the Dean is required.
 Dec 3, 5, 7:
Chapter 13, nonparametric statistical tests,
Wilcoxon signedranks test for matched pairs, Wilcoxon ranksum test
 Dec 10:
Course wrapup.

FINAL EXAMINATION
To be announced.